Often this is combined with chondroitin. In its previous opinions on several health claims for glucosamine as a food ingredient submitted to the European Food Safety Authority, the Authority found that there was insufficient scientific evidence of efficacy in the healthy general population. Misleading claims may not be marketed under European legislation.
Glucosamine is used perorally to relieve symptoms of mild to moderate arthrosis of the knee joint, such as joint swelling, joint stiffness after rest and pain.
In 2006, the National Institutes of Health of the United States initiated a multi-center, placebo-controlled, six-month blind study on the efficacy of chondroitin and glucosamine in knee arthrosis. It found no statistically significant effect on the symptoms of osteoarthritis in patients with mild pain. Treatment effects were observed in a subgroup of patients with moderate to severe pain, but the meaningfulness was not conclusive due to the small number of patients in this subgroup. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study from 2013, conducted by the University of Sydney with 605 subjects, observed a statistically significant reduction in joint space.
A decrease in joint pain could be observed in all groups without significant differences between the groups. In vitro glucosamine has an anti-inflammatory effect.