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What are micronutrients and what are their benefits?

People take in certain macro and micronutrients every day through their diet. But many people wonder what micronutrients actually are and what they do. This article provides a definition and an overview of the most important micronutrients for the human body.

What are micro- and macronutrients – simply explained?

The human body needs both micro- and macronutrients. “Macro” means “large”. Therefore, nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which the body needs in large quantities, are considered macronutrients.

However, micronutrients should not be forgotten either, even though humans only need them in very small quantities. However, this does not mean that they are less important. The fact is: micronutrients are vital! But what exactly are micronutrients?

In simple terms, they are nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and amino acids that do not provide the body with energy, but do have other vital properties. They are therefore the “driving force” within human cells.

What do micronutrients do?

Micronutrients are essential for the body. But the question arises: What do micronutrients actually do? They are necessary for all processes in the human body. For example, they ensure that the metabolism and immune system function properly.

In addition, no cell and tissue growth would be possible without micronutrients. And the body’s own defence and repair processes can only function if sufficient micronutrients are available.

Conversely, this means that a lack of micronutrients can lead to complaints. This includes, for example, a poor immune system, which makes it easier for bacteria, fungi and parasites to attack the body.

What micronutrients are there?

The question of what micronutrients are can be clarified using a few examples. These include, among others:

– vitamins

– minerals

– amino acids

But which micronutrient is good for what? And which nutrients does the human body need?


Vitamins are among the essential substances for the human body. Although we only need small amounts of them, they fulfil many important functions. They can be roughly divided into fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins.

Water-soluble vitamins such as B vitamins and vitamin C must be taken regularly as the body cannot store them. Fat-soluble vitamins, on the other hand, can be stored but need a so-called transport medium – namely fat. Only then can the body absorb them optimally. These include vitamins A, D, E and K.

But which vitamins does the human body need?

Vitamin A

A for eyes. Vitamin A is primarily known for promoting eyesight. It is also said to promote skin health and the immune system. Vitamin A is found in carrots, peppers, egg yolk, fish, cheese and liver.

B vitamins

There is a range of B vitamins:

– Vitamin B1 (thiamine) for healthy functioning of the nervous system and energy metabolism

Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) for normal energy metabolism and the maintenance of red blood cells

– Vitamin B3 (niacin) for various metabolic processes

Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) for more mental performance and a good energy metabolism

Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) for normal carbohydrate and protein metabolism

Vitamin B7 (biotin) for strong skin and hair

Vitamin B9 (folic acid) for cell division and reducing tiredness

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) for cell division, reduction of tiredness and the formation of red blood cells

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is probably the best-known vitamin. It is also known as ascorbic acid and is said to contribute to strong connective tissue and a strong immune system. Vitamin C is also said to support the following areas:

– Nervous system

– blood vessels

– cartilage

– skin

– bones

Vitamin C can be found in vegetables such as peppers, citrus fruits and rose hips – the “lemons of the north”, as they say.

Vitamin D

The sun vitamin D can be produced by the body itself. It just needs to be exposed to the sun. In the dark and cold months of the year, however, vitamin D should be obtained from foods such as mushrooms, eggs, fish, liver and beef.

Vitamin D is considered so important because it is said to promote the absorption of the minerals phosphate and calcium and strengthen the immune system. In addition, people with a vitamin D deficiency often feel exhausted and tired.

Vitamin E

Vitamin E, known as tocopherol, is said to intercept free radicals that attack the fatty acids in the body’s cells. This is why it is so important for healthy skin. If the body lacks this protective vitamin, it can lead to symptoms such as muscle weakness, impaired coordination or even difficulty walking. Vitamin E can be obtained primarily from high-quality vegetable oils. These include soya oil, maize germ oil, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil.

Vitamin K

The body needs vitamin K primarily for the formation of blood clotting factors. It is therefore essential for bone metabolism. Vitamin K is mainly found in green vegetables. Spinach, broccoli and kale are therefore ideal sources of vitamin K.


Minerals are another group of micronutrients. They are inorganic building materials for the body that it cannot produce itself. In addition, minerals are necessary for many processes that ensure a balanced household.

Minerals can be divided into trace and bulk elements:

– The body requires 50 mg or more of a bulk element per kilogramme of body weight.

– Trace elements require less than 50 mg per kilogramme of body weight.


Calcium is responsible for the strength of bones and teeth. In terms of quantity, it is therefore the most important mineral for the human body. If you do not have enough calcium, this manifests itself in muscle cramps, tingling feet or depressive moods. Calcium is found in dairy products, green vegetables and mineral water.


Potassium is considered important for the acid-base balance and the transmission of signals in the nervous system. The body also needs potassium for healthy heart function and to regulate blood pressure. Potassium is found in bananas, potatoes, nuts and wholemeal products, among other things.


The human body needs magnesium for communication between nerve cells and muscle contraction. The mineral is also essential for bones and teeth. A magnesium deficiency can be recognised, for example, by muscle cramps or loss of appetite. Magnesium can be absorbed by eating almonds, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, cocoa powder and pulses.


The mineral iron is necessary for many metabolic processes in the body. It is also the central atom in haemoglobin – the red blood pigment – and myoglobin. It is responsible for the transport of oxygen in the blood. Iron can be obtained from red meat, liver, soya beans and herbs.


Chromium regulates blood sugar and is essential for fat metabolism. Chromium is also essential for muscle building. The mineral can be found in the following foods:

– Pulses

– fish

– Fats and oils

– meat

– honey

– chocolate

– Tomatoes


Iodine, which is mainly found in salt or sea fish, is essential for various growth processes and the thyroid gland. It also regulates the cardiovascular system.


Various pulses supply the body with zinc, which is essential for the immune system. It also supports the acid-base balance and wound healing.

Other important minerals are

– Molybdenum

– copper

– manganese

– fluorine


– silicon

Amino acids

When considering the question of what micronutrients are, amino acids must also be mentioned. They influence various metabolic processes in the body and contribute to the formation of organs, muscles, skin and hair. The most important amino acids include lysine, threonine, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, valine and phenylalanine.

Which micronutrients does the body need?

Which and how many micronutrients a person needs depends on various factors. The daily requirement of both micronutrients and macronutrients therefore varies. For example, children who are still growing have different requirements than adults. And pregnant women need more of certain micronutrients than other women. Sport also plays an important role: people who are active in high-performance sport need more micronutrients than people who only go jogging every now and then. Other factors that influence the need for micronutrients are individual stress levels and lifestyle. People who smoke have completely different nutrient requirements to non-smokers.

How do you meet your daily micronutrient requirements?

In most cases, you can cover your own micronutrient requirements purely through your diet. It is important to familiarise yourself with what contains which micronutrients.

The following foods contribute to a balanced diet for an optimal supply of nutrients:

– Fruit and vegetables for numerous vitamins

– Wholemeal products, milk and dairy products because of their high potassium, magnesium and calcium content

– Healthy vegetable fats from nuts, eggs or seeds for better absorption of fat-soluble vitamins

– Fatty sea fish, seafood and meat for zinc, iron, fluoride, iodine and cobalt

– No fast food because of the many additives

However, it is not always possible to cover the daily requirement of micronutrients. This may be due to their own increased requirements or to an intolerance. People who follow a vegan or vegetarian diet can also run the risk of not being optimally supplied with all the necessary nutrients. A deficiency can arise, which manifests itself in one or other symptoms.

In such cases, a change in diet is advisable. If this is not successful, those affected can turn to dietary supplements. As the name suggests, these only supplement the diet and do not replace it.

What should I bear in mind when buying micronutrients in the form of dietary supplements?

When buying supplements, those affected should always pay attention to the composition and quality. Kingnature offers high-quality, natural products with high bioavailability. This means that the body can absorb and process them well. This means that certain deficiencies can be compensated for.

Furthermore, you should not take just any food supplements. It is important to know your own requirements well. A consultation with a doctor can help with this. At the same time, the doctor can also determine whether the micronutrient deficiency is the result of a disease.

Each micronutrient is absorbed slightly differently by the body. It is therefore important to always read the package leaflet. Some supplements should be taken before meals, others are better taken between two meals. This helps to prevent possible side effects and complaints.


There is a range of micronutrients that the body needs for various processes. If you eat a balanced diet, you can usually provide your body with everything it needs. In some cases, however, supplementation makes sense. This involves the targeted intake of micronutrients in the form of food supplements. If you have any questions, you should always consult a doctor first and rule out any illnesses that could cause a deficiency.